There are different requirements for teachers’ and trainers’ skilled and pedagogical qualifications in terms of the responsibility for teaching VET students to become skilled workers.
The in-company trainer must have a qualification as a skilled worker (or equivalent) within the trade in question. The trainer is supposed to have some years’ practical experience, but not necessarily any pedagogical trainer qualification. However, the AMU system (adult vocational training program) does have some courses targeting in-company trainers in how they should train and work with apprentices, but these are scattered and not compulsory.
Trainers are normally recruited from the company and appointed by the leader in charge of the company or department.
Teachers are recruited by the VET colleges based on their qualifications and competences. They are expected to be skilled workers and if subject-teachers they are required to have a qualification at level 6 in the National Qualifications Framework (EQF 6). The board of governors formally employs all staff members, but in practice this is done by the school leadership, based on the delegation of authority from the school board.
After employment, teachers must complete a consecutive pedagogical program at the diploma or Bachelor’s level (60 ECTS points). The program alternates with periods at school and periods in the workplace, where the teachers have the opportunity to apply their competences in practice. These programs will usually be provided at university colleges all over Denmark. No later than four years after employment, the program must be successfully completed in order to achieve permanent employment.
In 2014, it was decided that all VET teachers without the diploma mentioned above should complete at least one module from a similar program (10 ECTS points) before the end of 2020 as a part of a major systematic CVET initiative deriving from the VET reform of 2015.
Pedagogical methods (didactical approaches)
All VET colleges must work strategically with a common pedagogical and didactic base to be formulated at the college and documented to the Ministry of Education. In addition, all levels of management must complete a module in pedagogical management (10 ECTS) at EQF level 6. The pedagogical plans and initiatives must be reflected in the college’s action plans.
Qualifications are described in terms of learning outcomes by the trade committees. They have been greatly inspired by the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and are included in the National Qualifications Framework (Den Danske Kvalifikationsramme) with eight levels like the EQF.
The local curriculum (lokale undervisningsplan) contains the same competence goals as the national curriculum, which in general is broadly described. The decentralized approach is reflected in how learning outcomes are specified. It is up to the school, in cooperation with the local trade committees and the students, to operationalize and adapt the nationally set general competence goals to the local context. The goals are used for both formative and summative assessment. Key competences are reflected and included in curricula. They may vary somewhat from school to school, due to different strategies and different pedagogical-didactical bases.
Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning: https://ufm.dk/en/education-and-institutions/recognition-and-transparency/transparency-tools/qualifications-frameworks
Training of Trainers (Danish): https://www.amukurs.dk/FreeTextSearchList.aspx?Search=prakitkvejledning%20af%20elever