All the data mentioned in this chapter can be retrieved from the homepage of the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. The structure of the Swiss economy has gone through considerable changes in recent decades, which are typical of virtually all modern economies. Traditionally important industries such as farming, construction and engineering have declined, while most branches in the service sector continue to grow. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) represent 99.7% of all businesses in Switzerland, and employ two thirds of persons active in the private sector. Trends show that the working population is aging, with the largest age group being the 40-54 year olds. Until 2004, the age group of 25-39 year olds was the largest one.
- In Switzerland the graduation rate at upper-secondary level stands almost at 95%. Whereof the majority opts for the vocational education and training pathway after compulsory education. Roughly, one third opts for general education at this stage. The qualification profile of the highest qualifications achieved within the Swiss population is divided as follows:
- 12% of the population finished compulsory school at secondary level (ISCED-2011: 2). They did not obtain a qualification at upper-secondary or tertiary level.
- 53% of the population opt for the vocational and professional education and training pathway, finishing either with a Vocational Education and Training (VET) qualification at upper-secondary level (39%, ISCED-2011: 34/35) or obtaining a Professional Education (PE) qualification at tertiary-level (14%, ISCED-2011: 6/7).
- 35% of the population opt for the general education pathway, finishing either with a baccalaureate (9%, ISCED-2011: 34) or continue to obtain a qualification in higher education qualification (26%, ISCED-2011: 6/7/8)
The service sector accounts for more than 70%of total employment, whereas roughly 20% of the population works in industry and business, and a minority in agriculture and forestry. Apprenticeship positions available in dual-track VET programmes reflect a similar distribution among the sectors. The Swiss apprenticeship system is based on the labour-market needs. “Professional organisations” are responsible for developing new training opportunities and starting revision processes. For this reason, the development of competences is directly linked to the labour-market needs and help to cope with gaps. Furthermore, the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) has strategically tackled the task to promote career opportunities in order to attract apprentices in the developing professional fields and the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) evaluates the needs in relation to economic changes (Industry 4.0).