Apprenticeship systems are characterized by a shared responsibility for development and management of the system. The nature of cooperation and the division of roles and responsibilities at all system levels is stipulated in the legislative framework that governs an apprenticeship system. How the shared responsibility in practice occurs and is divided between different systems actors vary from country to country. The shared responsibility has the advantage of consensus building and costs sharing, which is critical to ensuring a dynamic system serving labour market needs and students.
The Austrian governance structure for apprenticeships is comprised of institutions at the federal, provincial, and local level. The enterprise-based and school-based sections are managed separately. Each group is governed by a different ministry (economy and education). The lion´s share of apprenticeship training lies within enterprises; the Apprenticeship Offices – one per province (Bundesland) play a particularly important role. They have several responsibilities concerning apprenticeship training and are situated in the regional economic chambers.
The Danish VET system is based on tri-partite governance between the state, employers and employees including legal Framework, national qualifications standards, quality assurance and financing. The social partners play an institutionalised role in the curriculum development, the dual organisation of VET and the monitoring of VET at the national, sectoral and the institutional level.
The governance of the dual apprenticeship system in Germany is a common task of the state, social partners and business and trade organisations. The Federal Government is responsible for the in-company part of the training, and the Federal States run the vocational schools. The involvement of social partners in decision-making processes at all levels is regulated in the Vocational Training Act.
The Ministry of Education, Children and Youth (MENJE) is responsible for VET in collaboration with the social partners represented by the professional chambers. Cooperation between the State and the social partners is a core principle of the VET system. As stated in the law, the social partners are essential stakeholders who contribute to the organisation and implementation of VET. A VET Committee is responsible for providing advice to the Government about all matters concerning VET.
Vocational and professional education and training (VPET) in Switzerland is the joint responsibility of the Confederation, the cantons and professional organisations as set forth in the Federal Act on Vocational and Professional Education and Training (VPETA). The VPETA describes their roles within various topics. This stakeholder cooperation is called the public-private partnership of VPET. Their decision-making activities are consensus driven. Where indicated, the partners agree on additional mutual declarations such as charters or mission statements for (re-)defining their mode of cooperation.
The public-private partnership is shared between the Confederation as well as the Cantons and the professional organisations. The Confederation is represented by the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI). The cantons are represented at the national level through the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers of Education (EDK). Professional organisations is the umbrella term used for the non-governmental stakeholders in VPET. The professional organisations are responsible for the development of qualifications and they ensure the involvement of the economy.