A consistent legal and strong institutional framework is a key feature in countries with mature apprenticeship systems. The legislative framework clearly spells out the objectives of the system and defines the division of roles and responsibilities of key actors. It may also set rules for interaction and cooperation and regulate the division between company-based training and school-based training.
For the enterprise-based element of the apprenticeship training, the most important law is the Vocational Training Act (Berufsausbildungsgesetz, BAG), which is the responsibility of the Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs. The School Organisation Act (Schulorganisationsgesetz, SchOG) and the School Instruction Act (Schulunterrichtsgesetz, SchUG) comprise the main legislative acts for the school-based section. They are within the sphere of influence of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research.
The regulatory framework for VET is based on four major laws. The laws all have national coverage and stipulate the legal structure within which the VET system functions, including programs, funding and institutional framework.
The German government uses laws and regulations to set the legal framework for the in-company part of the dual apprenticeship training. The centrepiece is the German Vocational Training Act. Through this act the State declares the entire field of non-school vocational education and training to be a public task.
The Luxembourgish VET system is regulated by the law of 19th December 2008 concerning the reform of the IVET and CVET system. Hence, this law also covers the regulations regarding the apprenticeship system. The code of labour law includes specific disposals about the protection of young workers and apprentices in companies.
The Federal Act on Vocational and Professional Education and Training (VPETA) and the Ordinance on Vocational and Professional Education and Training (VPETO) form the national legal framework for the Swiss VPET system. In line with the VPETA each canton issues their own cantonal legislation on VPET. SERI issues education ordinances for each VET programme (VET ordinances). Each apprentice needs an apprenticeship contract and the companies need a VET accreditation in order to take on apprentices.