Apprenticeship training is one out of four options open to learners at the upper secondary level. Two additional options are different types of VET full-time schools. Only one of the three VET tracks includes direct access to higher education with the university entrance exam “Matura”. With the “Berufsreifeprüfung” and the “Berufsmatura” (combination of apprenticeship training and HE entrance examination) steps have been taken to increase permeability from the dual system to higher education.
Fig. 3: VET in Austria’s education and training system
Source: Cedefop (201). Spotlight on VET Austria, p. 4; online available: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8048_en.pdf
Structure of the education system and VET in general
The nine-year compulsory schooling period in Austria starts with attendance of the four-year primary school. At the lower secondary level, pupils have the choice between two four-year school forms: the lower level of academic secondary school (Gymnasium) and new secondary school (Neue Mittelschule).
Dual VET is one of four options open to students at the upper secondary level. Whereas dual VET can only be started upon completion of the nine-year compulsory schooling period, the other pathways can be started immediately after the lower level of academic secondary school or new secondary school, i.e. after 8 years. One of these pathways is the upper level of academic secondary school. This level is completed after four years with the upper secondary school-leaving exam and the matriculation certificate (Matura), which gives access to all tertiary qualifications. The other two options are the VET tracks school for intermediate vocational education and college for higher vocational education (the latter is completed with the matriculation and diploma exam). This means that together with dual VET (apprenticeship training), learners have the choice between three VET pathways at the upper secondary level.
National Qualifications Framework, allocation of VET qualifications
The implementation of a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) has been a key objective of educational policy for some years. In 2014/15 an NQF Act has been drafted. In March 2016 this Act entered into force, in June 2016 the steering committee had its constitutional meeting. To date four qualifications have been allocated to the NQF (cf. www.qualifikationsregister.at).
Overview pathways within the VET system
Learners at the upper secondary level have the choice between two pre-vocational types of school and three VET programmes:
- Pre-vocational school (Polytechnische Schule, PTS): one-year pre-professional school with 16,135 students in 2016/17
- Schools for intermediate vocational education (berufsbildende mittlere Schule, BMS): one- and two-year pre-professional schools and (most of them) three- and four-year VET schools with various area specialisations (business, technology, agriculture, social affairs, tourism, etc.); 44,310 students in 2016/17
- Colleges for higher vocational education (berufsbildende höhere Schule, BHS), five-year VET colleges which lead to the upper secondary school-leaving certificate with various area specialisations (business, technology, fashion, design, agriculture, tourism, kindergarten teacher training, etc.); 133,447 students in 2016/17
- Dual VET (apprenticeship/apprenticeship training), from the tenth grade, around 200 two- to four-year apprenticeship occupations in various area specialisations (construction, electrical, information technology, wholesale and retail trade, etc.); 177,358 students were in vocational part-time schools in 2016/17 (cf. https://bildung.bmbwf.gv.at/schulen/bw/ueberblick/statisticalguide_2016.pdf?5i83yh, retrieved on 02.07.2018)
For more information:
- Bundesministerium für Bildung (BMB) (2017): Statistical Guide 2016. Key facts and figures about schools and adult education in Austria. Available at: https://bildung.bmbwf.gv.at/schulen/bw/ueberblick/statisticalguide_2016.pdf?5i83yh
- Bundesministerium für Bildung (BMB): Education in Austria 2016/17: https://www.bmb.gv.at/enfr/school/bw_en/index.html
- Euroguidance Austria: The Austrian Education System: http://www.bildungssystem.at/en/
- Statistik Austria – on Education: http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/menschen_und_gesellschaft/bildung_und_kultur/formales_bildungswesen/index.html
- Statistik Austria - on Population:http://www.statistik.at/web_en/statistics/PeopleSociety/education_culture/index.html