Quality assurance is a shared responsibility between the public authorities, the social partners and the VET schools. Quality assurance takes place at all system levels. It is outcome and result oriented and it is monitored through different mechanisms as specified in the legal act for VET as well as in training ordinances. Increasingly indicators are used to monitor quality over time.
Quality of apprenticeship training is based on the continuous development and modernisation of training contents to economic and technological developments as well as the training of IVET and CVET trainers. Standards for apprenticeship-leave exams are checked by the clearing office set up in the ministry of economy. In 2013 the Quality Management in Apprenticeship (Qualitätsmanagement Lehrlingsausbildung, QML) initiative was launched; it builds on a set of annually evaluated indicators. The part-time vocational schools have with QIBB, the VET Quality Initiative, their own quality management system.
Quality assurance in Denmark is primarily based on internal evaluation (self-assessment), and even though the Ministry of Education may inspect VET providers, this is only done in cases where grave problems have been diagnosed. Reporting to the Ministry is furthermore only required – in line with the principle of deregulation – on six basic criteria or indicators, which are all outcome-oriented:
The quality assurance of the in-company part of the training takes place on all levels. The Vocational Training Act sets the legal frame. An essential component is the institutionalized involvement of the social partners. The quality assurance of the school part is the task of the federal states.
The improvement of the quality of the VET system was at the stake of the VET reform of 2008. Hence, the quality of the VET system is guaranteed by numerous legal disposals like the nationally fixed curricula and assessment frameworks and the requirements for accreditation and funding of technical secondary schools. Companies offering apprenticeship positions do have to be in possession of a training authorisation subject to specific requirements.
Great priority is placed on ensuring quality within the Swiss Vocational and Professional Education and Training (VPET) system, as in other areas of education. Quality assurance is conducted at various levels by the federal government, the cantons and professional organisations. Federal Vocational and Professional Education and Training Act (VPETA) and Vocational and Professional Education and Training Ordinance (VPETO) form the legal basis for maintaining the quality of the VPET system.