Apprenticeship based systems are demand and market driven, which implies that there can be challenges to match supply and demand within particular occupations, regions or in periods of economic recession. To ensure a match between supply and demand many supplementary measures are in place through guidance and through targeted marketing efforts undertaken by the social partners, the government and the schools. The marketing efforts may be organised as dedicated campaigns about the advantage of apprenticeship targeting potential apprentices, their parents and companies. Marketing campaigns may also be in the form of outreach to companies to encourage them to take on-board apprentices.
Quality assurance is a shared responsibility between the public authorities, the social partners and the VET schools. Quality assurance takes place at all system levels. It is outcome and result oriented and it is monitored through different mechanisms as specified in the legal act for VET as well as in training ordinances. Increasingly indicators are used to monitor quality over time.
Excellence in VET takes many forms. It is shaped by the comprehensiveness of quality assurance mechanisms, by horizontal and vertical permeability in VET systems, by national recognition in the labour market and labour market employability, mobility and career prospects and by the rich opportunities to participate in lifelong learning. Furthermore considerable efforts are spent on innovations in the VET system and in VET research to improve the attractiveness of VET for all key stakeholders and in monitoring the attractiveness.