A

Access to education and training

Conditions, circumstances or requirements (such as qualifications, education level, competences or work experience) governing admittance to and participation in educational institutions or programmes.

 

Source:

Unesco (1995). Unesco thesaurus. Paris: Unesco. http://databases.unesco.org/thesaurus/[accessed 23.11.2007].

Apprenticeship

Systematic, long-term training alternating periods at the workplace and in an educational institution or training centre. The apprentice is contractually linked to the employer and receives remuneration (wage or allowance). The employer assumes responsibility for providing the trainee with training leading to a specific occupation.

Comments:

  • in French, the term ‘apprentissage’ relates to both apprenticeship and the process of learning (see ‘learning’);
  • the German ‘dual system’ is an example of apprenticeship.

Source:

Cedefop; Tissot, P. (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy – A multilingual glossary for an enlarged Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Process of appraising knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences of an individual against predefined criteria (learning expectations, measurement of learning outcomes). Assessment is typically followed by certification. Comment: in the literature, ‘assessment’ generally refers to appraisal of individuals whereas ‘evaluation’ is more frequently used to describe appraisal of education and training methods or providers.

 

Source:

Cedefop; Tissot, P. (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy – A multilingual glossary for an enlarged Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

Attractiveness of vocational education and training

Capacity of vocational education and training to:

  • encourage individuals to deliberately choose vocational education and training;
  • offer quality qualifications that open up career prospects;
  • persuade employers to recruit holders of VET certificates.

Comment: attractiveness of VET depends on various factors:

  • image of VET and parity of esteem with other educational pathways;
  • flexibility of pathways allowing mobility between VET and academic education;
  • quality of VET offer;
  • involvement of stakeholders, including social partners, in VET and in the provision of guidance and counselling.

Source:

Cedefop (2014): Terminology of European education and training policy. Second Edition. A selection of 130 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

B

Benefits of education and training

Socioeconomic added value of education and training.

Comments:

  • benefits of education and training can be private, namely received by individual persons, enterprises or institutions, or public, benefiting a whole region, economy or society;
  • benefits can be monetary (such as wages) or socioeconomic (health, wellbeing, social cohesion, reduced crime, employment, productivity, growth).

Source:
Cedefop (2014): Terminology of European education and training policy. Second Edition. A selection of 130 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

C

Certification of learning outcomes

Process of issuing a certificate, diploma or title formally attesting that a set of learning outcomes (knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences) acquired by an individual have been assessed by a competent body against a predefined standard.

 

Source: Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012].

Curriculum

Inventory of activities related to the design, organisation and planning of an education or training action, including definition of learning objectives, content, methods (including assessment) and material, as well as arrangements for training teachers and trainers. Comment: the term curriculum refers to the design, organisation and planning of learning activities while the term programme refers to the implementation of these activities.

 

Source:

Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012]. Landsheere, 1979.

D

Dual system / alternance training

Education or training combining periods in an educational institution or training centre and in the workplace. The alternance scheme can take place on a weekly, monthly or yearly basis. Depending on the country and applicable status, participants may be contractually linked to the employer and/or receive a remuneration. Comment: the German ‘dual system’ is an example of alternance training.

 

Source:

Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012].

E

European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF)

Reference tool for describing and comparing qualification levels in qualifications systems developed at national, international or sectoral levels. Comment: the EQF’s main components are a set of eight reference levels described in terms of learning outcomes (a combination of knowledge, skills and/or competences) and mechanisms and principles for voluntary cooperation. The eight levels cover the entire span of qualifications from those recognising basic knowledge, skills and competences to those awarded at the highest level of academic, professional and vocational education and training. EQF is a translation device for qualification systems.

 

Source:

European Parliament and Council of the European Union (2008). Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning. Official Journal of the European Union, C 111, 6.5.2008, pp. 1-7. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/lexuriServ/lexuriServ.do?uri=oJ:c:2008:111:0001:0007:en:Pdf [accessed 22.7.2010].

European quality assurance in vocational education and training (EQAVET)

Reference framework to help EU Member States and participating countries develop, improve, guide and assess the quality of their own vocational education and training systems. Comment: the methodology proposed by the framework is based on:

  • a cycle consisting of four phases (planning, implementation, assessment and review) described for VET providers/systems;
  • quality criteria and indicative descriptors for each phase of the cycle;
  • common indicators for assessing targets, methods, procedures and training results – some indicators are based on statistical data, others are of a qualitative nature.

Source:

Cedefop, based on European Parliament and Council of the European Union (2009b). Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on the establishment of a European quality assurance reference framework for vocational education and training. Official Journal of the European Union, C 155, 8.7.2009, pp. 1-10. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/lexuriServ/lexuriServ.do?uri=oJ:c:2009:155:0001:0010:en:Pdf [accessed 4.10.2010].

G

Guidance and Counselling

Range of activities designed to help individuals to take educational, vocational or personal decisions and to carry them out before and after they enter the labour market.

Comments:

• guidance and counselling may include:

  • counselling (personal or career development, educational guidance);
  • assessment (psychological or competence/performancerelated);
  • information on learning and labour market opportunities and career management;
  • consultation with peers, relatives or educators;
  • vocational preparation (pinpointing skills/competences and experience for job-seeking);
  • referrals (to learning and career specialists);

• guidance and counselling can be provided at schools, training centres, job centres, the workplace, the community or in other settings.

 

Source:

Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012].

I

In-company training / On-the-job training

Vocational training given in the normal work situation. It may constitute the whole training or be combined with off-the-job training.

 

Source:
Unesco; Titmus, C. et al. (1979). Terminology of adult education [Terminologia de la educación de adultos/Terminologie de l’éducation des adultes]. Paris: Unesco.

L

Learning outcomes / learning attainments

Set of knowledge, skills and/or competences an individual has acquired and/or is able to demonstrate after completion of a learning process, either formal, non-formal or informal. Statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process, which are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence.

 

Sources:

Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012].

European Parliament and Council of the European Union (2008). Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning. official Journal of the European Union, C 111, 6.5.2008, pp. 1-7. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/lexuriServ/lexuriServ.do?uri=oJ:c:2008:111:0001:0007:en:Pdf [accessed 22.7.2010].

Q

Qualification

Qualification covers different aspects:

  • Formal qualification: the formal outcome (certificate, diploma or title) of an assessment process which is obtained when a competent body determines that an individual has achieved learning outcomes to given standards and/or possesses the necessary competence to do a job in a specific area of work. A qualification confers official recognition of the value of learning outcomes in the labour market and in education and training. a qualification can be a legal entitlement to practice a trade (OECD);
  • Job requirements: knowledge, aptitudes and skills required to perform specific tasks attached to a particular work position (ILO).

 

Sources:

Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications Office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012].

Eurydice (2006). TESE – Thesaurus for education systems in Europe. Brussels: Eurydice. http://www.eurydice.org/portal/page/portal/eurydice/showPresentation?pubid=051en [accessed 23.11.2007].

ETF –Eeuropean training foundation (1997). Glossary of labour market terms and standard and curriculum development terms. Turin: ETF.

OECD (2007). Qualifications systems: bridges to lifelong learning [Systèmes de certification: des passerelles pour apprendre à tout âge]. Paris: OECD.

ILO – International Labour Organization (1998). ILO thesaurus [Thesaurus BIT = Tesauro OIT]: labour, employment and training terminology. Geneva: ILO. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/support/lib/tools/aboutthes.htm [accessed 23.11.2007].

S

Social partners

Employers’ associations and trade unions forming the two sides of social dialogue.

Comments:

  • the concept of ‘social partner’ originates in France and Germany and was subsequently taken up in EU circles;
  • tripartite social dialogue also involves public authorities and/or representatives of civil society, NGOs, etc.

Source:

Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 21.06.2016].

Stakeholder

A person or organization with an interest or concern in something. In vocational education and training stakeholders include government, providers of training, industry, clients and the community.

 

Source:

TESDA, Philippines (2014): UNEVOC. Promoting learning for the world. http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/go.php?q=Stakeholder&context= [accessed 18.7.2016].

Standard

Series of elements whose content is defined by concerned actors. Comments: One can distinguish between several types of standards:

  • competence standard refers to knowledge, skills and/or competences linked to the practice of a job;
  • educational standard refers to statements of learning objectives, content of curricula, entry requirements as well as resources required to meet learning objectives;
  • occupational standard refers to the statements of the activities and tasks related to a specific job and to its practice;
  • assessment standard refers to statements of the learning outcomes to be assessed and the methodology used;
  • validation standard refers to statements of level of achievement to be reached by the person assessed, and the methodology used;
  • certification standard refers to statements of the rules applicable for obtaining a certificate or diploma as well as the rights conferred.

According to the system, these standards can be defined separately or be part of one document.

 

Source:

Cedefop (2008). Terminology of European education and training policy – A selection of 100 key terms. Luxembourg: Publications office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4064_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012].

T

Teacher

Person whose function is to impart knowledge, know-how or skills to learners in an education or training institution. Comment: a teacher may fulfil several tasks such as organizing and carrying out training programmes/courses and transmitting knowledge, whether generic or specific, theoretical or practical. A teacher in a vocationally-oriented institution may be referred to as a ‘trainer’.

 

Sources:

Cedefop; Tissot, P. (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy – A multilingual glossary for an enlarged Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

AFPA – Association nationale pour la formation professionnelle des adultes (1992). Vocabulaire des formateurs [Vocabulary of trainers]. Paris: AFPA.

Trainer

Anyone who fulfills one or more activities linked to the (theoretical or practical) training function, either in an institution for education or training, or at the workplace.

Comments:

• two categories of trainer can be distinguished:

  • professional trainers are training specialists whose job may coincide with that of the teacher in a vocational training establishment;
  • part-time or occasional trainers are professionals in various fields who take on, in their normal duties, part-time training activity, either in-company (as mentors and tutors of recruits and apprentices or as training providers) or externally (by occasionally offering their services at a training establishment);

• trainers may carry out various tasks:

  • design training activities;
  • organise and implement these activities;
  • provide the actual training (transfer knowledge, know-how and skills);
  • help apprentices develop their skills by providing advice, instructions and comments throughout the apprenticeship.

Sources:

Cedefop; Tissot, P. (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy – A multilingual glossary for an enlarged Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

AFPA – Association nationale pour la formation professionnelle des adultes (1992). Vocabulaire des formateurs [Vocabulary of trainers]. Paris: AFPA.

Training of trainers

Theoretical or practical training for teachers and trainers.

Comments: training of trainers:

  • is for teaching/training personnel, either practising: (a) as professional teachers or trainers, (b) as professionals in a given field who accompany trainees in their work environment (occasional teachers or trainers);
  • covers a wide range of skills: knowledge specific to the field in question (general, technical or scientific); educational, psychological and sociological skills; management skills; familiarity with the world of work; and knowledge of training schemes and target audience;
  • also covers training related to course design, organization and implementation, as well as content of training activities (imparting knowledge, know-how and skills).

Source:
Cedefop; Tissot, P. (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy – A multilingual  glossary for an enlarged Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

Transition from school or training to work

Move from education or training to employment, covering the period between leaving education and entering the labour market. Comment: transition between school and employment (integration path, type of employment – with regard to level and status – and duration) is complex. Integration depends on many factors (gender, age, qualification, employment policy, guidance and counselling provision, etc.).

 

Source:

Cedefop; Tissot, P. (2004). Terminology of vocational training policy – A multilingual glossary for an enlarged Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office.

V

Vocational education and training (VET)

Education and training which aims to equip people with knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences required in particular occupations or more broadly on the labour market.

 

Source:

ETF – European training foundation (1997). Glossary of labour market terms and standard and curriculum development terms. Turin: ETF.

W

Work-based learning

Acquisition of knowledge and skills through carrying out – and reflecting on – tasks in a vocational context, either at the workplace (such as alternance training) or in a VET institution.

 

Source:

Cedefop (2011). Glossary – Quality in education and training/Glossar – Qualität in der allgemeinen und beruflichen Bildung/Glossaire – La qualité dans l’enseignement et la formation. Luxembourg: Publications Office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/files/4106_en.pdf [accessed 23.4.2012].